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Issue Purchase - Online Checkout. People also read Article. Margaret Henderson Continuum Volume 15, - Issue 3. Published online: 1 Jul Published online: 1 Mar Through vows, the monastic commits to life in a particular place with particular people. The commitment to stability means that when conflict arises or disagreements occur they need to be worked out because there is no running away.
Because a commitment to working things out requires attention to what is real, monastic community acts as a counter of all that is not real. The creation of false need, the promise of fulfilment, and the creation of identity around consumption can be viewed through the same commitment to reality. This external stability is a reflection of inner stability marked by a unity and coherence of purpose and life De Waal. A monastic community is formed around a shared telos that gives it a collective identity.
While people are welcomed as guests into the community with Benedictine hospitality, the journey to becoming a member is intentionally difficult Benedict, chapter The importance of committing to community and the sharing of the collective telos is not a rushed decision. The stability and permanence of monastic commitment to community is a counter to the perpetual chasing and replacing of other goods and experiences that is a part of consumerism. The deliberate attention to practices that form a rhythm of life involving the whole person shows that monastic communities are intentional in their own formation.
Prayer and spiritual reading are key parts of monastic life that demonstrate that spirituality is central in the formation of individuals and communities Benedict, prologue.
The formation is aligned to a particular ideology that values humanity as being made in the image of God and therefore the need to focus on the connection with God. A holistic humanity addresses issues and development of the mind, body and spirit. If, as Roberts suggests, a counter-culture looks to reform society by providing an alternative model, then change is based upon seeing the alternative.
The guests in the monastic community are involved in discussions that make explicit the monastic ideology and how it shapes the countercultural values and practices. In doing so, the guests are invited to listen to, or examine the consumerist ideology that permeates their society and shapes their everyday experiences.
In evaluating the conflicting ideologies, the guests are free to choose an alternative view, which, as the television series showed are not necessarily that of the monastic community, and may in fact remain that of consumerism. While ideologies are not neutral, they are often invisible. The dominant ideology of consumerism reduces citizens to individualistic consumers and naturalises the need for never ending consumption. A number of groups or movements attempt to expose the logic of consumerism and offer alternative ways of consuming.
Each has their own strengths and weaknesses; some are absorbed into the very culture they seek to counter while others remain apart. Christian monasticism, based on the Bible and the Rule of Benedict, engages in the social practices of listening, physical work, and commitment to community. This model has stood the test of time and shown itself to be a legitimate counterculture that is in value-conflict with the current dominant culture of consumption.
Benedict and Patrick Barry. Mahweh, New Jersey: Hidden Spring, Cavanaugh, William.
Dystopia and the End of Politics | Dissent Magazine
Being Consumed: Economics and Christian Desire. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, Darts, David. De Geus, Marius. London: Palgrave MacMillian. Grigsby, Mary.
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Culture and Religion Johnson, Brett. The Voluntary Simplicity Movement. Kincheloe, Joe. Critical Pedagogies of Consumption. Littler, Jo. Cultural Studies Michael Haas has written perhaps the most trenchant critique of a hidden normative agenda Haas Among the points raised: Due to sampling manipulation, the research creates the impression that democracies can justifiably fight nondemocracies, snuff out budding democracies, or even impose democracy.
And due to sloppy definitions, there is no concern that democracies continue undemocratic practices yet remain in the sample as if pristine democracies. According to Azar Gat's War in Human Civilization , there are several related and independent factors that contribute to democratic societies being more peaceful than other forms of governments Gat :.
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There is significant debate over whether the lack of any major European general wars since , is due to cooperation and integration of liberal-democratic European states themselves as in the European Union or Franco-German cooperation , an enforced peace due to intervention of the Soviet Union and the United States until and the United States alone thereafter Mearsheimer , or a combination of both Lucarelli n. The debate over this theory was thrust in the public eye, when the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the European Union, for its role in creating peace in Europe Joyner From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Main article: List of wars between democracies. This article contains weasel words : vague phrasing that often accompanies biased or unverifiable information. Such statements should be clarified or removed. February Main article: Capitalist peace. This section is in list format, but may read better as prose.
You can help by converting this section , if appropriate. Editing help is available. April In vain do ambitious or angry princes arm for war; in spite of themselves they are calmed down by some sort of general apathy and goodwill which makes the sword fall from their hands. Wars become rarer.
Rummel is partisan, and the bibliography lacks some recent papers, but is nonetheless one of the better introductions to the subject. Watson Center for Conflict and Cooperation n. Democracies — you don't run for office in a democracy and say, please vote for me, I promise you war. You run for office in democracies, and say, vote for me, I'll represent your interests; vote for me, I'll help your young girls go to school, or the health care you get improved.
The third of the Fourteen Points specified the removal of economic barriers between peaceful nations; the fourteenth provided for the League of Nations Russett Abadie, Alberto Archived from the original PDF on September 6, Abulof, Uriel; Goldman, Ogen International Journal of Conflict and Violence. Archived PDF from the original on October 19, Babst, Dean V. The Wisconsin Sociologist. Industrial Research : 55— Bakker, Femke E. A cross-regime experimental investigation of the normative explanation of the democratic peace thesis in China and The Netherlands" PDF.